Using Run 3 Games

Run 3 Games

If you are a newcomer to running games at GenCon and would like to give it a go, have a look at their helpful strategies and hints page. This game takes a couple seconds to load and after that you are able to begin playing run 3 unblocked online. It is a perfect combination of puzzle and action game. Video arcade games are all over the region.

Type the security code and now it's possible to download the game to your mobile phones. In case the game doesn't load, you have to install the latest edition of Adobe Flash Player because it's essential for games. There are many great games available if you're searching for a wonderful hack-and-slash style action RPG gaming experience. In case the online games are being filtered, then a little more work is demanded. Obviously, there are various varieties of online games for kids in addition to adults.

Players who want to buy Credits must place caution into consideration on account of the big number of fraudulent websites. You don't need any players to complete the game with a score significantly lower than everyone else, as they'll be discouraged and have a terrible experience. New players have the capability to take part in the in-game skate school.

No matter your preference you will see a game which meets your style. Because there are lots of different game consoles now available it can prove to be quite confusing as to which might be the very best one that you can get. What's more, Run 3 game is genuinely a demanding game nowadays to just about all of the games fanatic. These Run 3 games are readily available to any individual which has a good computer and also substantial rate internet.

As the game has some intriguing features, the majority of the folks find it quite common. Some games are extremely interesting to keep the entire atmosphere quite and peaceful, then that's generally the ideal way to play the game. Card games enable you to receive a completely free casino money which you may use for betting. After you register, you are going to be qualified to receive additional free casino slot game or free casino games based on what experience downloaded.

Your mission is extremely simple because you simply will need to jump in order to prevent obstacles and black holes. If you are experiencing problems, just aim to remember the physics beneath it. In reality, the purpose of the game is the maximum distance that you could run through the maze. There are likewise an assortment of achievements which you could earn as you play to genuinely verify your capability at playing the game to other individuals. If you won't be in a position to survive it, you've got to begin your level from a scratch.

You might be wondering if your phone will be going to supported by the site and the games you would to be able to download. After that, proceed by picking the country in which you reside in addition to entering your cellular number in the gap provided. It's quite correct that the children learn a lot of things from playing these absolutely free internet games. You might have to choose the you would delight in playing by scrolling about the list choosing the one may prefer. It's extremely likely based on your description of the players that you're going to be placed in situations which are horribly unpleasant for you. Learn the latest pictures Run 3 Games Freak, and you also can get the picture here simply.

There are several different sorts of games on the internet like Slope, Riddle School, . . These games are particularly for children-friendly and therefore are full of educational price. The escape games genre are the latest type of totally free arcade games available in the internet. Whether this game doesn't load, then attempt installing first the most recent edition of adobe Flash Player. Now, you can play this game anywhere at anyplace depending on your preference. Sometimes, it actually is tough to obtain the ideal game for your children to experience which doesn't need to turn into hard. If you are searching for the ideal running game for your children, the majority of the individuals would suggest run 3 games.

You may have a look at the grocery shop and you'll acquire different kinds of games. You are able to play cat Mario online with no strictness or hesitation. Now, it's possible to purchase many different video games on the internet to experience. Spin the spinner as fast and so long as you are able to in order to earn tickets, which you are able to spend to finish the legendary Samurai Cat. So if you're planning for a grand party, it's very great to have a couple games for your kids up your sleeve. Our events fill up very quickly, so that you may count on lots of players having a fantastic moment. There are plenty of stages in the game-play that you have to go through during the plan of run 3 unblocked online.

If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Afterlife the Game

Get the Scoop on Afterlife the Game Before You're Too Late

Avid players will be acquainted with the majority of the mini-games. There are, though, a few definite methods of losing the game. When you play this game, you are going to have excellent experience of an individual's life. When you play this game, you are going to have good experience on the life span of a ghost. If you believe about free and internet games, you're considering kiz10, where you're come across a huge and new variety collection of the hottest online games of earth. It was believed to be among the most well-known games of early Egypt. Everything is self-explanatory, and the total gameplay shines.

You are likely to do things like flying, haunting people, and all types of different things, as you are likely to see on the screen what it is which you need to do. It's possible for you to experience this game on your browser because it's a flash game. These texts suggest that the mind or soul is united with the body in order to give rise to some other whole complete substance composed of both of these metaphysical pieces.

Several of the mini-games are unconventional. The last mini-game I'd love to mention is Collect. Another familiar mini-game is named Bust Out. Another less standard mini-game is known as Revenge.

The 5-Minute Rule for Afterlife the Game

In the last edition, you've progressed through life and your final life is gone. Since the mind is a totally mental thing, these arguments simply do not apply to it. Since the mind has to have a surface and a capacity for motion, the mind also has to be extended and, thus, mind and body are not totally different. Then you'll get married. You've got a lot to pick! Whether they actually exist apart is another problem entirely. All this results from amateur programmers that are testing their game, get really great at it, then choose to make it harder.

1 wrong move will lead to death. If you crash at any stage, you must start over from the very start of the graveyard. See that the argument is provided from the very first person perspective (as are the whole Meditations).

The entire diversity of their various natures has serious consequences for the sorts of modes each can possess. But the primary difference between both is that Descartes' doctrine doesn't employ final causes. The outcome of this problem are extremely serious for Descartes, as it undermines his claim to have a very clear and distinct comprehension of the mind without the body.

The one-button control scheme is simple to get accustomed to. For instance, the notion of an unextended shape is unintelligible. Operational success is going to be indicated by a new example of 2137-1. You are likely to play the use of a ghost, as this will be the afterlife after all. Each endeavor is really a distinctive mini-game. The tasks involve a vast range of interesting, challenging pursuits. You have to finish distinctive tasks both in real life and the ghost world.

All you need to do is mess up everything. You will travel and you must deal with your wellbeing. Following that, you'll need to guard an old lady. When you die, you will develop into a ghost. You will meet different ghosts. Before you're able to enter the afterlife, you must finish a whole lot of important tasks. Fortunately, Afterlife succeeds within this area.

The Number One Article on Happy Wheels

Bikes are really popular on campus. When you haven't gotten a bike yet, or whether you're not sure you desire a bike yet and would like to check it out first, BYUH has lately piloted a bicycle ride sharing program that you are able to use also. Find somebody you can trust to look after your bike, and don't wait until the last minute, or you can wind up contributing to the abandoned bike supply, and there are lots of thieves who'd be pleased to give you a hand with that as well.

If you have not ever slid on the wheels you are at present riding, your slides will be rather choppy for some time. The last step you will need to take in purchasing your wheels is to learn what's available to you at your neighborhood skateboard shop, and obtain the wheel that's going to fit your requirements. The exact first item you will need to comprehend about wheels is they can be found in different hardness's. In the end, Happy wheels is available online free of charge. In such a circumstance, when the bigger wheel turns once the more compact wheel turns many occasions and for that reason magnifies the force.

Happy Wheels, nevertheless, is neither. It is an awesome reproduction. In addition, it also has a mobile version for iOS. Since you may see, Happy Wheels is a favorite online game, and for the very excellent reason. Happy Wheels is a rather addictive physics based game in which you're racing together with a great deal of gory spins involved. It features a level editor which allows players to create custom levels of their own. Hot Wheels isn't too heavy.

A Secret Weapon for Happy Wheels

The following thing you will need to consider is the magnitude of a wheel. The less weight on the rear of your board, the simpler it's going to be to force the back two wheels out. There are tons of choices to pick from. If you're planning on learning how to slide, the very first thing which you should do is throw on a helmet and some protective gear. The frame needs to be constructed employing the go kart plan for a guide. When the whole frame was tacked up then the entire frame can be welded solid. Be cautious with your seat too, particularly if you are in possession of a quick-release bike seat.

Backpacks with wheels might not be allowed at your children's school. You're purchasing a new skateboard. So utilizing the riding lawn mower for a make shift go kart isn't realistic or safe.

You would take pleasure in the game if you adore riding in particular. There are lot of action games around the net nowadays, some are fake or a number of them do not do the job properly. The game has tons of unique characters, and decent sound decoration. You may play the games based on which genre you enjoy the most. It is possible to play the game at this time. As a result, if you're attempting to discover an extremely addictive game which is filled with blood and gore then you wish to look no farther than Happy Wheels. If you adore extreme and higher speed games, you have discovered the correct area, you will wind up in the air at such a high speed and you'll need to get rid of thousands of danger obstacles during gameplay.

A superb go kart program is going to have easy steering system, therefore it may be easier in the limit to scrap out the steering system and apply the parts that the plan shows. Probably the easiest means to acquire the very best deal is to get inexpensive skateboard clothes online. Many times it's possible to become really great bargains on cheap skateboard clothes on sale online and in stores where you receive a discount for buying a particular amount of the very same apparel. If you would like the best price possible, shopping around and comparing prices is the best method of going about it. It can be tough trying to locate a very good deal on a great deal of things.

The big game engines give a particular software framework that a developer utilizes to create a 2D game. Therefore, if you're seeking an extremely addictive game that's stuffed with blood and gore then you have to look no additional than Happy Wheels. I also know a game similar to Happy Wheels that is Short Life. This game has simple graphics, suitable for all ages, especially children and families. Websites are getting more popular each of the moment. The minute you'll discover an online website pertaining to free games you're likely to observe there are in reality all kinds of entirely free games accessible. Shopping on the internet is a practice utilized by huge numbers of people nowadays, and there's a great reason behind it. Always ask the help of a good Skateboard Shop and you ought to be OK.

Artificial Intelligence defeats humans in maze game.

Have you ever been totally dominated by the computer player in a video game? A new artificial intelligence system takes on all comers with a handful of old Atari titles, and it does so after learning the rules bit by bit like a human. Its creators claim this is just the very beginning of what it can do. In a few years, it may be driving you to work.

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?


Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.
Goals of AI:
-    To Create Expert Systems − The systems which exhibit intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain, and advice its users.
-    To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines − Creating systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans.

Learn how to navigate as humans, Google's latest artificial intelligence program, Deepmind, has beaten gamers in labyrinth games, The Guardian reported.  Context is the virtual environment, DeepMind and gamers are tasked with tracing through the chain of rooms, roads and strange random.  Equipped with an artificial mesh cell system, the AI is quicker and takes advantage of occasional blackouts in the game.
Senior research fellow Dharshan Kumaran said: "It acts as an animal, picking up lines wherever possible, and taking shortcuts anytime it appears. It's about surpassing a professional player. "  Previously, scientists discovered the existence of artificial mesh cells in AI (mesh cells that are the basis for navigation activity, identified in humans and mammals in 2005).

As AI training moves across terrain, scientists find that AI develops electrical activity quite similar to that occurring in specialized brain cells that develop navigational skills. After discovering artificial mesh cells, the DeepMind program team created an enhanced version and as a result it beat the pro gamers in the game. This milestone marks an important milestone in the field of artificial intelligence.
"What we're trying to do is use the human brain as an inspiration," Google DeepMind researcher Demis Hassabis told reporters in a telephone conference call about the research, published in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature. "This is the first rung of the ladder to showing that a general learning system that goes from end to end, from pixels to actions, even on tasks that humans find difficult."
And as anyone who played games in the '70s and '80s will remember, Atari 2600 games were definitely difficult. The AI outscored humans on 23 out of 49 games, such as Road Runner, Space Invaders and Breakout, and came close on many more.
 


The state of the AI's learning can be visually inspected, which shows how it has clustered and categorized different types of data.

 

Although AI has demonstrated the supernatural ability of object identification, go play, go, poker, but the ability to navigate in space is another challenge. This reveals the potential for boom for intelligent programs that simulate human brain activity.
In addition, the discovery paves the way for computer engineers to build models that help scientists understand the human brain. "Without human or animal experiments, we can completely use AI and artificial neural networks to understand how the brain operates, performing various functions on the body," says Caswell Barry, co-author of the study. Neurobiology works at University College London working on the assertion project.

 


A report in the journal Nature (May 9), the scientists describe how they build a deep neural cell network, a computer program with artificial layers of neuron that processes information. Then they teach the navigation program in basic space, giving it some speed coding signals, like the directions in the mouse brain.
AI is better educated and responsive, and can predict where it is going in the virtual environment.  A quarter of the artificial neuron on each layer of the deep neuronal network acts as a biological net. In other words, AI grasped the strategy of exploring the world as the human brain went through. "We were amazed at how well the program was running," Caswell said.  
Grid cells are the basis for navigation in humans and mammals. Hexagonal cells, which differ in size from large to large, may even overlap into an invisible network that is thought to help the mammals perceive their location and calculate the shortest path to the entry.

 

 

4 times people thought they had found out the Alien but finally they were wrong.

The answer for the mysteries that seems to come from outer space, turns out to be closer to us than imagined and embroidered for a long time.

1. Alien bones 

In 2003, a collector found a leather bag containing a 15cm long skeleton, thought to be the alien's bones who had landed on Earth in the past because the mummy had large sockets and a long skull.  As a result, over the next 15 years, the rumors were woven around this mysterious mummy, and the mummy was also frequently given evidence to prove the existence of extraterrestrial life. 

But recently, thanks to gene therapy, the true truth about this skeleton is clear: this is not an alien mummy, but a child's genetic mutation linked to bone. This type of mutation is extremely rare, with no previously documented record of it.  And as a result we are once again mistaken for the presence of aliens, like many other times in history.

Back in the skeleton, scientists have been putting a lot of energy in place in 2013 to find a way to explain why Ata (the name of a skeleton) is about the size of a fetus. Bones develop as children between the ages of 6 and 8.  Until now, five years later, thanks to Ata's analysis of DNA, scientists have the answer: it's a mutation in seven chromosomes related to bone of people.
 

2. Signal from distant universe 

In the summer in 2017, astronomers at the Arecibo Observatory received a strange radio signal from an asteroid called the Ross 128. However, the true origin of the signal is still within the mystery, because If it came from a solar storm on Ross 128, there would be no frequency what astronomers received.  Then another theory, is that this signal is sent from aliens living at Ross 128, and like us, are they looking for signs of alien life?

The answer is no. Unfortunately, just a week later, astronomers have come up with the answer: this signal comes from a satellite we just launched, and it sends a signal when it passes by. space between Earth and Ross 128.

Bringing aliens into the conversation before eliminating every other possibility might seem surprising, but not if you consider the source of this new information. The Breakthrough Listen Initiative is a $100 million project with the express directive of looking for signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. So upon finding something strange and not immediately explainable, of course they’re going to bring up aliens. It’s their job to hold that up as a possibility until the evidence shows otherwise.

But there are plenty of other avenues of research that provide possible explanations for the repeating burst. Many of these are thrilling and exciting, and most of them are definitely not aliens.

3. Glittering Stars

The star is also known by the name of Tabby, whose scientific name is KIC 8462852, and it attracts the attention of astronomers because the star regularly abnormally blinks and does not follow. any rule at all.  Many people say that the reason this star is blinking is because it is not a star, but a giant structure built by outsiders. Immediately, the star fell into NASA's "need to track", when they used the Kepler telescope to track KIC 8462852 for 1600 days.

The study revealed that the Milky Way’s bulge is a dynamic environment of variously aged stars zipping around at different speeds, like travelers bustling about a busy airport.

The researchers also found that the motions of bulge stars are different, depending on a star’s chemical composition. Stars richer in elements heavier than hydrogen and helium have less disordered motions, but are orbiting around the galactic center faster than older stars that are deficient in heavier elements.

However, by January 2018, a group of astronomers announced the cause of the bizarre blur: the cosmic dust that caused the brightness of the star to change. often.  Of course, where the dust from the universe came from is still in the mystery. Only human beings have once again "missed an appointment" with outsiders.  

4. The gap between the pyramid 

In December 2017, scientists announce the discovery of a hollow cavity in the Pyramids of Giza. Through the use of X-rays, they tracked the movement of muon particles through the pyramid, thereby detecting the existence of this cavity, with a length of more than 30 meters.  Scientists have called this hollow cavity Big Void, and they have yet to get an accurate answer about its formation.And Egyptologists believe it could finally shed light on how the ancient tombs were constructed.

The enigmatic gap, which is around 100ft long is situated directly above the Grand Gallery, an elaborate access route which cuts through the pyramid.

It was found using a state-of-the-art scanning process called ‘muography’ which picks up tiny cosmic particles known as muons.However, the team claims that the hollow is made up of the intentions of the pyramid builders, not aliens. Unless, this pyramid is actually an alien product, then it is another story.

The Difference a Year Makes By Joe Gilker

joegilkerjup

When looking ahead, a year always seems like a long time. But when we look back, it really seems only like yesterday, despite the fact that a lot may have happened in that period of time. When I consider where I was with astrophoto- graphy exactly 1 year ago, I found myself just starting to be comfortable with my equipment, the use of it, and the post processing of my images. I was at the point where I knew enough to be able to get decent results some of the time. If I managed to get acquire good data, the post processing went well. If my data was difficult, chances are I’d have one hell of a time processing it and would end up junking it. And by junking it, I don’t really mean deleting the files. I just meant filing it away on my network storage in my image archive.

Polar Alignment – Starting With Your Tripod

Anyone who owns an equatorial mount knows about polar alignments.  If you’re not familiar with the concept I’ll explain it here.  Polar aligning a telescope mount consists of very precisely adjusting the azimuth and altitude of your Right Ascension (RA) axis.  The purpose of this adjustment is to allow the RA axis of your mount to correctly counteract the rotation of the Earth when tracking objects in the night sky.  If your RA axis is adjusted too far East or too far West, then stars will gradually drift out of the field of view.  If you are doing astrophotography, the stars drifting action will cause them to look more like eggs, or in extreme cases, lines.

Two_Telescopes_Aligned

If you’re reading this post, but have not read about how to eliminate friction in an equatorial mount, be sure to go back and read that post as well as watch the video.  As long as you have friction in your system, the process I’m about to go over will be difficult for you to do.

CCD Camera’s by OPTCORP.COM

CCD Imaging is the fastest growing segment in the hobby of amateur astronomy today.  Most amateur astronomers have at least dabbled with imaging in one way or another.  A large percentage of observers love it so much that imaging has all but replaced visual observations when they get out under the stars.

It is easy to begin exploring the universe with a camera these days and much less expensive than you might think. Many companies offer simple one-shot color imagers that cost no more than a decent eyepiece.  Of course, those who are willing to spend a bit more will be able to delve deeper and with better resolution.  This can be compared to purchasing a telescope with better glass or a larger aperture.

Astronomy Cameras

 

Click the image to view.

When looking for a telescope camera, or astronomical camera, the decision can include a myriad of different manufacturers, and different types of camera.  Choosing between the various astronomy still cameras, video cameras, or other specialty cameras, such as All-Sky cameras or a Seeing Monitor, can offer even the most experienced astronomer a great challenge.  While the decision of what type of telescope camera (still, video, or specialty) is usually based on what type of image one wants to capture, as well as their budget; once you’ve decided on an imager for your telescope, you then have to work through the choices within this category.

Astronomy Video Cameras

 

Click the image to view.

If you’d like to have even more fun with your telescope, consider an astronomical video system.  These awesome tools can broadcast real time images of deep space objects to a monitor and function as cameras.  You could teach a class while watching globular cluster resolve on screen.  You could also share the views of Saturn during an outreach program.  Perhaps you might like to make a film of a shadow transit on Jupiter or record the day’s solar activity.  Maybe you’d just like to record motion pictures of comets or record a lunar eclipse… the possibilities are endless.  Planet cams and digital imagers are a wonderful, low cost way of introducing yourself to astrophotography.  These cool tools can be as easy as inserting the eyepiece camera into the telescope and turning on the screen!

 

Guide & Speciality Cameras

Click the image to view.

If you’ve ever wished you could see or photograph the whole sky all at once, now you can with a Sky Monitor.  These highly specialized cameras employ a “fish-eye” lens that delivers a 360 degree overhead view.  Rugged enough to withstand all types of weather, they stand up to sunlight and provide daytime views of sky conditions.  Some of these amazing units are also sensitive enough to pick up objects as faint as the Milky Way.

Imagine being able to check sky conditions at your remote observatory through your computer.  Think of the possibilities of a camera that can time-lapse image a meteor shower or provide a live feed of bright astronomical activities.  You can watch a sunrise or sunset,  spot a rainbow, or check for aurora.  These are just a few of the applications a Sky Monitor can do for you.

PHOTO NIGHTSCAPE AWARDS 2015

Circumpolaire : Voie lactee

 

Second edition of the of the Photo Nightscape Awards launch
International night sky photography awards
February the 1st, 2015, the Association Francaise d’ Astronomie (AFA) launches the second edition of the Photo Nightsacpe Awards (PNA 2015).
The PNA is organized in partnership with ESO, Nikon, Cite des Sciences et de l’industrie de Paris, AIP the Alqueva Dark Sky Reserve, the Refuge aux Etoiles, Medas and Picto Laboratory.
Opened to hobbyist and professional photographers from around, the PNA rewards the world, the PNA rewards the most beautiful pictures of night landscapes into 4 categories (‘Nightscape’ ‘In Town’. ‘Timelapses’ and ‘Junior’).
New trend of astrophotography, the Nightscape or night scenery, requires photographers to include a landscape and a night skyscape on the same photograph.
The winning photographers will be awarded a trip to Chile to visit the Very Large Telescope, a trip to the Alqueva Dark Sky Reserve in Portugal, cameras, telescopes, binoculars….
Photographers can send their application form from February 1st 2015 to September 30th, 2015
All the information on www.photonightscapeawards.com

DEEP SKY WEST

HOW TO BUILD A REMOTE OBSERVATORY – THE STORY OF DEEP SKY WEST

 

Introduction.  This article is as much about Deep Sky West (DSW, www.deepskywest.com)  as it is instructional.  You can use the concepts presented in the ‘Story of Deep Sky West’ to create your own remote observatory—even in your own back yard.  In fact, “going remote” at home is the best way to ensure success when you’re really remote.  

 

DSW is a remote astrophotography observatory situated on Glorieta Mesa in Rowe, New Mexico. This high altitude site (elevation 7,400 feet) offers pristine dark skies, transparency, excellent seeing, and weather conditions coveted by all imagers. We make remote imaging and hosting affordable for the “average” backyard astrophotographer by offering exceptional value and promoting teamwork.  

 

 

 

 

 

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DSW was born on a rooftop in the middle of a 35-acre plot of land on New Year’s Eve 2014.  Say what?  Yes, Bruce Wright and I hatched the plan for DSW while staring at the inky black night sky from the roof of his underground house on the eve of 2015. Bruce’s life-long dream of building an energy-efficient, off-the-grid home sat beneath us while the most incredibly transparent sky encircled us from horizon to horizon.  While I appreciated Bruce’s accomplishment, the astrophotographer in me realized that the

highest and best use of this location was not underground, but overhead.  We decided to build DSW that night, but we wanted DSW to be different.  By June of 2015, DSW Alpha 1.0 saw first light.  

 

Our tag line says it all:  “Remote Imaging for the Rest of Us”.  Our primary goal is to make remote, dark site imaging affordable and attainable for the beginning astrophotographer to the most ardent amateurs and even professionals.  DSW promotes teamwork—it’s one of our guiding principles and puts dark site imaging within reach of the backyard imager.  There’s no need to re-invent the wheel since we’ve already procured a site, implemented the infrastructure, built the observatory, and hired on-site support.  Affordable remote imaging, every clear night, is within your grasp—no building, no driving, no sleepless nights, no hourly points systems, no creepy crawlers and no wasted trips.

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DSW’s target audience is the astrophotographer who has a love for the hobby, sometimes has great equipment, but is plagued by poor skies. The lack of consistent clear skies results in equipment going idle for long periods. When the weather does cooperate many imagers have to travel to remote locations, set up equipment from scratch, polar align, image (if the weather holds up), and tear it all down again at the end of the session. Imagers fortunate enough to have a home observatory don’t have the hassles of setting up 

for each session, but many locations lack quality skies.

 

Whether you’re a seasoned imager or just starting out in the hobby you’ve realized a few fundamental facts about our shared pursuit:  1) it’s really hard and 2) it can be very expensive.  How could we solve for both of these issues?  We created two separate business models within the same observatory.  One is traditional wherein an imager leases a pier and operates their own system remotely.  This is remote imaging in the “classic” sense:  you operate your equipment as you see fit, perhaps you work with a small group of friends and you split expenses—this is up to the team.  

 

The other model is a virtual team shared system concept wherein imagers from around the world choose the targets for our DSW-operated systems, we manage data acquisition, and the members receive all the data collected on the system(s) of their choice. This model has proven quite popular.  Interestingly enough this also generates some controversy!  There’s a school of thought that says in order to be considered a “real” astrophotographer one must perform their own data acquisition and image processing.  It’s the collection part that seems to be at the center of the issue.  Clearly our shared-system model removes the data acquisition part of the equation, but the processing is left up to the member.  Our position is clear:  if you don’t have the equipment, skills or skies you should not be denied the opportunity to participate in this wonderful hobby at a reasonable cost.  We also believe working within a community of similar imagers significantly enhances the experience and accelerates the learning process.  Who is or isn’t an astrophotographer?  Well, we don’t judge.  On to more interesting topics!

 

We've even started to take this a step further:  for those with "interesting systems" which are desirable to other imagers we'll host them for free.  It's a play on the sharing economy in a way.  The sky isn't going to change substantively in our lifetimes, but the equipment is changing quickly and not everyone can afford to get the latest greatest thing all the time.  Today we have a Rokinon lens (130mm crazy wide field), an FSQ (tried and true), two difficult to get A-P 305s (with 16803 and 8300 chips), an RC Optical 14.5” (3,340mm FL) and an A-P 175 Starfire refractor—another rare instrument.  We don't own all these systems.  Some are owned by our members who, in exchange for hosting and support, allow us to open the systems to other members via our shared model.  Each of these is interesting in its own way and we’re happy to have them on offer for imagers who’d like to participate in this way.  Ours is similar to other services, but we believe we’ve made it more cost-effective and our members are able to work with data integrations of at least 15 hours per target.  This varies by instrument, but our goal is quality of images over quantity.  

 

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Design.  DSW “Alpha” is actually the first of several ”Roll Off Building” (ROB) observatories planned for DSW.  We chose the ROB design for several reasons including simplicity, modularity, and durability.  Traditional stick-frame construction is a popular design and works well for observatories both large and small.  However, for DSW Alpha, Alpha 2.0 and Beta (opening Summer 2017) the Steelmaster arch-style proved the best choice.  Steel buildings are simple, modular, durable, water-proof, require little maintenance and are non-combustibleextra bonus for that.  The ROB runs on rails similar in design to a rollercoaster.  The building is “captured” both above and below tubular rails and is thus able to withstand high wind loads.  Our custom designed electric motor and gearing enables the ~2.5-ton structure to be moved with ease.  A common garden shed outfitted with wheels would make a fine observatory.  

 

DSW Alpha started as a 25 x 30 foot, 9-pier facility.  Alpha 2.0 is the original facility with an additional 25 feet of roof sections and 9 more piers which were installed in the Summer of 2016.  The modularity of steel construction allowed us to add roof sections as needed.  DSW Beta will follow the same basic design.

 

Two other design elements play a critical role in the effectiveness of a roll-off building.   First is overhead clearance.  DSW’s overhead clearance is 9.5 feet and all imaging systems are kept below this level.  Roof to scope contact is impossible.  When weather conditions demand, the observatory can close without regard for the position of any system.  There’s no need for special “at park” sensors or anything similar.  When it’s time to close, we close.

 

The second design element is the inner stub wall system which provides protection from ground-level winds, dust and other unwanted elements.  They give the feel of a traditional roll off roof, but are stationary and non-load bearing.  The stub walls are convenient for power outlets, flat panels, etc.  Some traditional RORs go so far as to motorize the southern wall to increase visibility to the south.  At DSW simplicity and reliability go hand in hand so we just limited the southern wall to 4 feet. Southern views go down to the horizon if you want to chase a southerly target.    

 

Redundancy. Every critical DSW subsystem has a backup—especially cloud and rain sensing. We use two Sky Alert cloud sensing systems with automatic failover.  We also employ Hydreon optical rain sensors in a redundant arrangement to provide additional rain sensing capability.  A Davis Weather Station supplies micro-climate information to the roof actuation system.  In all, there are 5 systems that monitor the weather and work together to determine whether or not conditions are safe.  

 

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Power is obviously another critical subsystem.  We take a very straightforward stance with respect to power availability.  If main AC fails, we close and stay closed until we understand the reasons for the failure.  Our UPS, which is backed up by charge-managed deep cycle marine batteries, has the ability to actuate the roof and run the imaging systems for several days.  

 

However, to continue to operate on UPS power without knowing the cause of a power outage is unsafe.  What if power is down for several days and the UPS and backup batteries are depleted?  Now suppose it rains.  You get the not very pretty picture.  The smart move is to close until the root cause of the power failure is known.  This brings us to a discussion of opening and closing protocol.

Protocol.  Equipment and infrastructure protection is our primary concern.  We’d rather miss a few hours of clear sky before risking the safety of the facility and its contents.  As such, we take a conservative approach with respect to observatory opening and closing.  DSW is fully autonomous and opens and closes based on inputs from all the various sensing systems.  Redundancy and strict adherence to protocol protects the observatory.  

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The normal open and close cycle for DSW is to open every day one hour before dusk and to close 30 minutes after sunrise.  The time between opening and astronomical dusk allows the systems time to reach thermal equilibrium and to perform other functions like flat acquisition.   The protocol for opening and closing depends on several factors.  DSW opens at the appointed time only if main AC power is active, WAN/LAN is functioning, and the weather is clear.  The definition of “clear” is a function of the difference between the ambient temperature and the sky temperature.  The latter is measured by infrared sensors on the Sky Alert system.  If “clear” is detected and all other conditions are met, then the observatory opens for business.  The operators, technicians and residents are notified via email and/or text messages anytime the roof opens or closes and the reason for the movement.  

 

For example, our favorite message is “Email #1 – DSW1 – Opening Beginning of Session”.  Conversely, our least favorite message is “Email #9 – DSW1 – Not Opening at Sunset Due to Weather”.  This disappointment is easily reversed when we receive “Email #8 – DSW1 – Re-Opening After Weather Event”.  

 

If at any time during the night any of the safe conditions change then the observatory closes and notifies everyone about the closure and the reason.  The observatory will re-open if safe conditions hold for at least 30 minutes.  The most common cause of closure is sky conditions changing from clear to cloudy to “very cloudy”.  In anticipation of potential rain or other precipitation the observatory will close until the danger passes.  Other closure conditions for DSW include humidity >= 80%, wind >= 12 MPH, unstable or vacillating weather conditions.

 

Support.  All observatories require technical support whether they’re in a backyard or far from home.  Remote observatories present a particular challenge for the obvious reasons:  you can’t touch your system and depending on the infrastructure you might not even be able to see it!  Competent, local support is critical.  Well-designed redundant systems help tremendously, but nothing replaces real human interaction.  At DSW we have several support personnel with various areas of expertise including infrastructure, network and imaging system operations.